- Nuclear installations in Germany
- Safety in nuclear energy
- Legal bases
- Licensing and supervision
- Safety philosophy
- Precautions and emergency response
- National committees
- International co-operation
- Reportable events
- Reporting procedure
- Incident registration centre
- International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)
- Reportable events in nuclear installations
- Reports on reportable events
- Shutdown and decommissioning
- Nuclear accidents
- What is nuclear waste management?
- Design approvals of transport packages
- Interim storage facilities
- What are interim storage facilities?
- Licensing of interim storage facilities for nuclear fuels
- Central interim storage facilities
- Decentralised interim storage facilities
- Interim storage facilities for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation
- Federal custody of nuclear fuels
- What is nuclear waste management?
- Foundation and development
- President of the BfE
- Laws and regulations
- Frequently applied legal provisions
- Handbook nuclear safety and radiation protection
- 1A Nuclear and radiation protection law
- 1B Other laws
- 1C Transport law
- 1D Bilateral agreements
- 1E Multilateral agreements
- 1F EU law
- 2 General administrative provisions
- 3 Announcements of the BMU and the formerly competent BMI
- 4 Relevant provisions and recommendations
- 5 Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA)
- 6 Key committees
- Annex to the NS Handbook
- A 1 English translations of laws and regulations
- Dose coefficients to calculate radiation exposure
- Legal Basis
- BfE Topics in the Bundestag
After final shut down of a nuclear facility preparatory works for decommissioning can be carried out during the post operational phase. As a rule, these include:
- unloading of fuel elements or nuclear fuel
- utilisation of radioactive substances and disposal of radioactive wastes from the operational phase
- sampling of systems and components
- decontamination of the facility and systems
Fundamental decommissioning strategies
The post operational phase is followed by decommissioning, which requires a decommissioning licence that - as a rule - suspendes the operational licence. In Germany, the following fundamental decommissioning strategies are applied:
This strategy involves the dismantling of a nuclear facility and the release from nuclear regulatory control.
This strategy involves transforming the nuclear facility into an almost maintenance-free condition followed by the later dismantling and release from nuclear regulatory control.
Decommissioning strategies may also be a combination of these fundamental alternatives. The removal of large components without segmentation, the storage of these components and their later segmentation can optimise the whole decommissioning process.
In Germany mostly direct dismantling is applied, but the Atomic Energy Act considers both strategies as equivalent. The following aspects are considered essential for the decision for direct dismantling:
- Planning and implementation of decommissioning (technical know-how available in the facility can be used)
- Financing (security of funds must be guaranteed for a relatively short period of time)
- Social concerns (maintaining jobs, minimisation of local economic problems)
- Technical progress for decontamination and for (remote-controlled) dismantling. As a consequence, the decay of radionuclides during safe enclosure has lost importance from the radiation point of view.
Objective of decommissioning
The objective of decommissioning is typically the dismantling of the nuclear facility and the subsequent release of the site from nuclear regulatory control. Often in Germany an end state as greenfield is aimed, that is, all facilities and buildings are completely removed and the site is restored to its natural condition. A number of other objectives are also feasible, for example, the industrial use of a released site, partial dismantling of the nuclear facilities and reuse of remaining buildings.
State of 2017.04.28