- Nuclear installations in Germany
- Safety in nuclear energy
- Legal bases
- Licensing and supervision
- Safety philosophy
- Precautions and emergency response
- National committees
- International co-operation
- Reportable events
- Reporting procedure
- Incident registration centre
- International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)
- Reportable events in nuclear installations
- Reports on reportable events
- Shutdown and decommissioning
- Nuclear accidents
- What is nuclear waste management?
- Design approvals of transport packages
- Interim storage facilities
- What are interim storage facilities?
- Licensing of interim storage facilities for nuclear fuels
- Central interim storage facilities
- Decentralised interim storage facilities
- Interim storage facilities for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation
- Federal custody of nuclear fuels
- What is nuclear waste management?
- Foundation and development
- President of the BfE
- Laws and regulations
- Frequently applied legal provisions
- Handbook nuclear safety and radiation protection
- 1A Nuclear and radiation protection law
- 1B Other laws
- 1C Transport law
- 1D Bilateral agreements
- 1E Multilateral agreements
- 1F EU law
- 2 General administrative provisions
- 3 Announcements of the BMU and the formerly competent BMI
- 4 Relevant provisions and recommendations
- 5 Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA)
- 6 Key committees
- Annex to the NS Handbook
- A 1 English translations of laws and regulations
- Dose coefficients to calculate radiation exposure
- Legal Basis
- BfE Topics in the Bundestag
International exchange of experience on the topic of decommissioning
Various international organisations have set up information exchange programmes in terms of decommissioning.
In addition to Germany, also the USA, the United Kingdom and France are among the countries with a large number of decommissioning projects. Furthermore there are a number of countries which, although pursueing nuclear energy programmes, do have little experience with decommissioning or none at all.
Therefore, various international organisations such as
- the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) based in Vienna,
- the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), based in Paris,
or, for Europe,
- the European Commission (EC) and
- the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA)
have set up information exchange programmes in terms of decommissioning. Members of the Federal Office for the Safety of Nuclear Waste Management (BfE) staff take part in some of these programmes. In the following a survey is given of the decommissioning-specific activities of these institutions.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
The IAEA’s most decommissioning-relevant activities take place in the Waste and Environmental Safety Section of the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. They include
- the development and revision of relevant publications and safety standards,
- the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management,
- the International Project on Decommissioning Risk Management (DRiMa project), regarding the use of risk management in planning and implementation of decommissioning,
- the Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R2D2 project) regarding the safe decommissioning of research reactors and
- the Iraq Decommissioning Project to support Iraq in decommissioning of nuclear facilities.
Staff members of the BfE take part in the DRiMa project, on the revision of safety standards, and at the Joint Convention.
Besides, also the Waste Technology Section of the Department of Nuclear Energy and, to a small extent, the Department of Technical Co-operation, deals with technical aspects of decommissioning.
Particularly noteworthy is the "Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management", which also comprises decommissioning. Each party to the contract is committed to prepare a national report every three years that documents which measures have been taken to implement the liabilities of the Convention. In accordance with its tasks the BfE is participated on generating parts of the report. During the Review Meeting, which also takes place every three years, this report or, respectively, the measures taken are presented by the respective party to the contract and are subsequently discussed. The fifth Review Meeting took place in May 2015.
The "International Decommissioning Network" (IDN) should also be mentioned. It was founded as a forum for operators and authority representatives with the aim of exchanging practical experiences in the field of decommissioning.
Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the nuclear authority of the OECD based in Paris. The major part of the works on decommissioning has been assigned to a sub-group, the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC).
The Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD), a sub-group of the RWMC, plays a central role in the decommissioning activities. Decommissioning experts from various areas (regulators, operators, service providers et cetera) from OECD states meet in the WPDD, together with representatives of other international organisations such as the IAEA. The works focus on
- exchange of decommissioning experience,
- decommissioning strategies,
- site remediation
- residue and waste management including the clearance of buildings and substances as well as
- financing issues.
Further WPDD working groups that have not been mentioned here each deal with selected topics relevant to decommissioning for a certain period of time. BfE staff members take part in the WPDD main meetings held annually.
A joint project of the OECD-NEA relating to decommissioning still needs mentioning, the International Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning (CPD). It serves the exchange of information on the decommissioning operation with existing decommissioning projects for the benefit of future decommissioning projects.
European Commission (EC)
In terms of decommissioning, the European Union (EU) currently mainly orientates politically to the management of funds for decommissioning. Central technical contributions to the development of directives are provided by the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group" (ENSREG), which the heads of nuclear authorities of all member states take part in. One of the three ENSREG working groups also deals with decommissioning and observes how the financing of decommissioning and waste management is developing in the member states. The ENSREG reports to the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament.
Furthermore the Commission has established a Nuclear Decommissioning Assistance Programme which provides financial support to decommissioning projects in Lithuania, Slovakia and Bulgaria according to their accession treaties. More information is available on the website of the Energy Commissariat.
Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA)
The Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA) is a consortium of the managing directors of the nuclear regulatory authorities of Western Europe with the objective to harmonise the requirements on the safety of nuclear facilities. For this purpose, international rules for the safety of nuclear facilities – so-called "reference levels" – are set up, which can be adopted correspondingly and executed by the national legislators. The WENRA develops reference levels for the fields of reactor safety, decommissioning and radioactive waste management.
The Working Group on Waste and Decommissioning (WGWD) developed and resolved upon the reference levels for safety in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On this basis, national action plans are to be developed which provide for those reference levels that have not been implemented yet in the respective set of rules being incorporated in the national set of rules on a voluntary basis.
State of 2017.05.29